Graduated from M. Lomonosov Moscow State University (1952), Dr. of Phys. and Math. Sciences (1963), prof. (1970), corr. member (1968).
Senior scientist at Cornell University (Ithaca, New York) (since 1987).
Membership of other Organizations
Founder and Chairman of Helsinki Group in Moscow (1976), Honorary President of International Helsinki Federation on human rights, member of American Academy of Arts and Science, member of several other scientific and social organizations. Honorary Doctor of University of Upsala (Sweden).
Awarded by Nicholson medal of the American Physical Society (1995) and other medals and awards.
Worked at the Inst. of Theoretical and Experimental Physics of the Acad. Of Sciences of USSR (1952-1956), Scientist, Head of Laboratory at Yerevan Physics Inst. (1956-1972). Since 1986 a resident of the USA.